Global surveys indicate, for example, that 40 percent of the remaining domestic livestock breeds are at risk of extinction. Decided to come back to farming, agriculture sector as a Farmer and Writer. The use of traditional methods such as cross-pollination, grafting, and cross-breeding to enhance the behavioral patterns of plants and animals is time-consuming. Then, this causes the cells to swell and lyse, eventually leading to the death of the insect. There is more to biotechnology than just fighting disease or improving food quality. Plant biotechnology is uniquely very important in this regard because it is; Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture mainly involves scientific techniques such as Genetically Modified Organisms, Bt Cotton, and Pest Resistant Plants. Chapter 2: What is agricultural biotechnology? For example, the papaya ringspot virus threatened to derail the Hawaiian papaya industry until papayas resistant to the disease were developed through genetic engineering. The uptake of biotechnologies in developing countries is increasing gradually but remains patchy. Biotechnologies such as cryopreservation, artificial seed production, somatic embryogenesis, and other forms of in vitro cell or tissue culture, are also extensively used for the conservation of genetic resources for food and agriculture in developing countries. Genomics sets the foundation for post-genomics activities, including new disciplines such as proteomics and metabolomics to generate knowledge on gene and protein structure, as well as their functions and interactions. Some crops, particularly monocot species such as wheat and rye, are not naturally susceptible to transformation via A. tumefasciens, although the method has recently been successfully used to transform wheat and other cereals. The process of testing for suspected genetic defects before administering treatment is called genetic diagnosis by genetic testing. However, this method may be of interest in forestry programmes for screening disease resistance and tolerance to salt, frost and drought. Comparative genomics assists in the understanding of many genomes based on the intensive study of just a few. Though, these increases in yield have proved to be difficult to achieve. 3. The implications of climate change make it necessary to integrate considerations regarding adaptation, uncertainty, vulnerability and resilience into agricultural research strategies and programmes. Molecular markers are increasingly used to study the distribution and patterns of genetic diversity. Crop damage can be minimized through disease and pest resistant varieties through reducing the use of chemicals. In addition to MAS, described above, a number of biotechnologies are used in breeding and reproducing crops and trees. Herbicide-tolerant crops are particularly compatible with no-till or reduced tillage agriculture systems that help preserve topsoil from soil erosion. Examples if pest-resistant plants today are Bt maize, potato, and corn. These activities are critical for the genetic improvement of crops, forest trees, livestock and fish. Genetically Modified crops help to reduce post-harvest losses. The desired genes are transmitted to the host along with the infection. However, some transgenic crops and traits of greater potential interest for developing countries have been developed but have not yet been released commercially. The non- genetically modified applications involve tools like Marker Assisted Selection, Tissue Culture, and Mutation breeding, etc. These problems can be minimized in an ecologically-friendly manner with the development of genetically reprogrammed seeds designed to resist these disease attacks while minimizing or even eliminating costly and hazardous pesticide sprays. Interspecific hybridization allows the combination of favourable traits from different species and has been used successfully in, for instance, the development of interspecific disease-resistant Asian rice and New Rice for Africa (NERICA) varieties. The well-known transgenic Golden Rice contains three foreign genes - two from the daffodil and one from a bacterium - that produce provitamin A (see Box 13 on page 42). The most common GMO crops were developed to address the needs of farmers, but in turn they can help foods become more accessible and affordable for consumers. These disciplines seek to understand systematically the molecular biology of organisms for their practical use. Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques used to improve plants, animals and microorganisms. It is environmentally friendly. How can biotechnology be applied to agriculture? In vitro selection refers to the selection of germplasm by applying specific selection pressure to tissue culture under laboratory conditions. Farmers in developing countries, especially small farmers, cultivate crops and face problems that are particular to their cultural and environmental conditions, and have often limited purchasing power to access proprietary technologies. A source of value-added genes and traits that will increase farmer productivity and also profitability. Once the gene has been transferred, the crop must be tested to ensure that the gene is expressed properly and is stable over several generations of breeding. Biotechnology in agriculture has helped to make both insect pest control and weed management safer and easier while safeguarding crops against disease. In fact, the most enduring successes to date have come from indigenous public-sector crop research programmes addressing farmer-relevant problems. Most of the transgenic crops planted so far have incorporated only a very limited number of genes aimed at conferring insect resistance and/or herbicide tolerance (see Chapter 3 for more information regarding the transgenic crops that are currently being researched and grown commercially). Since then, there have been more than 100 reported trials involving at least 24 tree species, primarily timber-producing species. Other nutritionally enhanced foods are under development, such as oils with reduced levels of undesirable fatty acids. The rapidly progressing discipline of genomics is providing information on the identity, location, impact and function of genes affecting such traits - knowledge that will increasingly drive the application of biotechnology in all agricultural sectors. What effects could genetically modified crops have on the environment? The agricultural biotechnology sector in India, particularly its plant biotechnology segment, is uniquely poised for the main process of transformation. Researchers at Jawaharlal Nehru University in India have developed a, Economic impacts of “Golden Rice” in the Philippines. Source & ©: FAO "The State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004" Chapter 2: What is agricultural biotechnology?  Section Breeding and reproducing crops and trees Subsection In vitro selection. 6. Scientists are using gene recognition and transfer techniques to improve the color, size, smell, and properties of flowers. Genetically modified crops have a significant contribution to the development of vaccines. Scientists are creating genetically altered foods that contain nutrients known to help fight disease or malnourishment, to improve human health, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Therefore, it can be of great help to the smallest farmer with limited resources, in increasing farm productivity through the availability of improved but powerful seed. The use of molecular markers to measure the extent of variation at the genetic level, within and among populations, is of value in guiding genetic conservation activities and in the development of breeding populations in crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries. In some cases in which a genetic disease is present in an individuals family, family members may be advised to undergo genetic testing. Livestock species are characterized by a high degree of genetic variation within populations, whereas crops exhibit a higher degree of variation across species. A combination of the two approaches is required for reliable results. What are the implications of GM-technologies for animals? The wider application of genetic modification has been slowed down by severe limitations on the kinds of traits available, complex intellectual property rights regimes and regulatory issues, and the often negative perception of the public.

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